The literary language, called Modern Standard Arabic or Literary Arabic, is the only authorized form of Arabic. It is used in most written official papers as well as in formal spoken occurrences, such as speeches and newscasts. Moroccan Arabic was official in Morocco for some time, before the country joined the Arab League. Now Arabic is spoken in Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Palestine, and Western Sahara.
Burmese is a Sino-Tibetan language belonging to the Southern Burmish branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages. Burmese is the most commonly spoken of the Tibeto-Burman languages and among the Sino-Tibetan languages, the second most commonly spoken, after the Sinitic languages. Burmese is the native language of the Bamar people and related sub-ethnic groups of the Bamar, as well as that of some folkloricfactions in Burma like the Mon. Burmese is spoken by 32 million people as their primary language. Another 10 million people, chiefly folkloric minorities in Burma and those in bordering countries speak Burmese.
Chinese encompasses of seven main dialects, Mandarin, Cantones, Hakka, Wu, Min, Xiang, and Gan. The diversity of Mandarin based on the language in the capital Beijing is the authorized national language of mainland China. The common language in Hong Kong and foreign Chinese communities is Cantonese. Midst the authorized languages of Taiwan are Mandarin, Taiwanese, and Hakka. The Chinese dialects are not commonlyunderstandable but are termed dialects from sociological and governmental points of view. Most of the dialects are themselves poised of a number of non-mutually-understandable subvarieties. Out of seven, six are spoken in the southeast of Chinese, south of the Yangtze River. Mandarin is spoken in most of northern China and part of western China.
Hebrew is a fellow language of the Canaanite group of Semitic languages. It was the language of the early Jews, but from 586 BC it started to be substituted by Aramaic. By 200 AD practice of Hebrew as a common place language had largely ended, but it sustained to be used for literary and religious functions, as well as a lingua franca among Jews from diverse countries. Hebrew is the official language of Israel, where it is spoken by about 5 million people along with Arabic. and a further 2 million people speak the language in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Panama, the UK and USA.
Indonesian is the national language of Indonesia, an Austronesian language, and is a standardized form of Malay. 30 million people have Indonesian as their primary language and a further 140 million have it as a secondary language. Indonesia is a linguistically miscellaneous region where the Indonesian language acts as a lingua franca. The VOA and BBC use Indonesian language as one of their standard for broadcasting in Malay. In Australia, Indonesian is one of three Asian target languages, together with Japanese and Mandarin, taught in some schools as part of the Languages Other Than English programme.
Japanese is spoken by 126 million people mainly in Japan but also in 26 other countries including American Samoa, Argentina, Australia, Belize, Brazil, Canada, Dominican Republic, Germany, Guam, Mexico, Micronesia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines and Taiwan. Japanese is distantly related to the Atlantic family of languages though it has no known linguistic. The Atlantic family includes Korean, Mongolian and Turkic languages. Japanese is not related to Chinese, however it does contain a huge number of Chinese 'loan' words, and in fact perhaps 50% of the words used in Japanese are of Chinese origin.
Korean is the official language of South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China. Chinese writing has been known in Korea for over 2,000 years. It was used widely during the Chinese occupation of northern Korea from 108 BC to 313 AD. Korean is spoken by about 63 million people in South Korea, North Korea, China, Japan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.
It is the authorized language of Laos, and also spoken in the northeast of Thailand, where it is generally mentioned as the Isan language. Being the prime language of the Lao people, Lao is also an imperative second language for the assembly of cultural groups in Laos and in Isan. Lao is chiefly spoken in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, France, Thailand, and USA. The Lao language is derived from Tai languages spoken in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam in areas alleged to be the birthplace of the language family and where numerousassociated languages are still spoken by dispersedsmaller groups.
Malay is an Austronesian language spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand. The total number of speakers of Standard Malay is about 18 million. Indonesian, a form of Malay is spoken by about 170 million people. Malay homeland is supposed to be in western Borneo.A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and it has been argued that it was the inherited language of all subsequent Malayan languages. The history of the Malay language can be divided into five eras: Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period (Classical Malay), Late Modern Malay, and modern Malay. It is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible.
Nepalior Nepalese is an Indo-Aryan language. It is the authorized language of Nepal and is also spoken in India and Bhutan. Nepali has an official status in the Indian state of Sikkim andDarjeeling district of West Bengal.Nepali is developed in closeness to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most particularly Pahari and Magahi, and also shows Sanskrit influences.
Pashto belongs to the southeastern Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian languages. Varieties of Pashto: Northern Pashto, mainly spoken in Pakistan; Southern Pashto, mainly spoken in Afghanistan; and Central Pashto, mainly spoken in Pakistan. Pashto has about 25 million speakers in Pakistan, and the provinces of Balochistan, Mianwali, Attock, Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Persian language, also called Farsi, is a member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. It is the authorized language of Iran, and two variations of Persian, known as Dari and Tajik, are authorized languages in Afghanistan and Tajikistan, respectively. The known history of the Persian language can be divided into the following three distinct periods:
- Old Persia: Old Persian evolved from Proto-Iranian as it evolved in the Iranian plateau's southwest.
- Middle Persian
- New Persian: The history of New Persian spans more than 1,000–1,200 years. The progress of the language in its last period is often divided into three stages namely early, classical, and contemporary.
Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the three living members of the East Slavic languages. It is also the leading native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. The language is one of the six authorized languages of the United Nations.
Sinhala is an Indo-Aryan language officially spoken in Sri-Lanka by about 16 million Sinhalese people. It is also used as a second language by another 3 million people belonging to other racial groups in Sri Lanka, where it is one of the official and national languages, along with Tamil. There are also considerable numbers of Sinhala speakers in Singapore, Thailand, Canada and the United Arab Emirates.
Thai is a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in Thailand with a combined population of 64 million people, and also in the areas of Midway Islands, Singapore, the UAE and the USA. Thai is closely resembles Lao, and northern dialects of Thai are more or less mutually comprehensible with Lao, particularly the Lao spoken in northern Thailand. Thai vocabulary includes many words from Pali, Sanskrit and Old Khmer also.
Turkish is a Turkic language with a combined population of 70 million speakers in Turkey and in 35 other countries, including Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Honduras, Iran, Iraq and Israel. The language can be rooted back to the Altay region in the Eurasian steppes, with the first known written records as old as 1300 years. In the western regions, the influence of Ottoman Turkish spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one ofAtatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script was replaced with a Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese is the national and authorized language of Vietnam. It is also the native language of theVietnamese people, as well as a first or second language for many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language spoken mostly in Vietnam with a combined population of 82 million people. The language is also spoken in the USA, China, Cambodia, France, Australia, Laos, Canada and a number of other countries. Vietnamese has been the authorized language of Vietnam since the country gained independence from France in 1954.